Café ao lado de espécies nativas para estancar desmate no Amazonas

Notícias

Que gosto tem o desmatamento da Amazônia? Para muita gente, o sabor é de carne – seja pela criação de bovinos ou pelo plantio da soja que alimenta os animais. Mas um grupo de ambientalistas brasileiros pretende criar uma nova conexão: ao saborear um café com teor de cafeína superior, o consumidor sentiria uma satisfação extra ao saber que o grão vem da mesma floresta, mas sem que uma árvore tivesse caído para a sua produção.

Os cafezais, ainda que poucos, já existem. Plantados na zona rural de Apuí, a quase 800 quilômetros de Manaus, eles ainda não viraram as áreas de pastagens que nas últimas décadas se expandiram por boa parte do Norte brasileiro.

“O desafio é mantê-los ali”, afirma Mariano Colini Cenamo, cofundador e pesquisador-sênior do Instituto de Conservação e Desenvolvimento Sustentável da Amazônia (Idesam). Há cinco anos, a organização trabalha para fortalecer a cadeia cafeeira na região, em um caminho de profissionalização e geração de renda alternativo à política de comando e controle para estancar o desmate na Amazônia.

Com apoio financeiro do Fundo Vale, Cenamo e sua equipe estão transformando em pequena escala as opções econômicas de agricultores familiares isolados do mercado comprador e com dificuldades, da produção ao escoamento. O primeiro mérito foi convencer 30 famílias do Assentamento do Rio Juma a não trocar terras produtivas por bois.

Na ponta do lápis, mostraram a esses agricultores que permanecer com o café valeria mais a pena: a receita obtida por cada hectare de pasto de baixa produtividade (a realidade na Amazônia) oscilaria entre R$ 70 e R$ 80 por ano. Com o plantio do grão, entre R$ 4 mil e R$ 5 mil.

Para isso, era preciso investir em novas tecnologias, informação e treinamento. O sistema de produção adotado é o agroflorestal, em que as árvores de café são consorciadas com espécies nativas. O café agroflorestal de Apuí recebe o apoio da Prefeitura, que ajuda no transporte do grão da zona rural até a cidade, onde é vendido a um beneficiador, que paga R$ 330 por saca – um prêmio de 10%. Além de garantir um ganha-pão melhor a quem produz, ele preserva a densidade verde de Apuí. O município está entre os que mais desmataram no Amazonas.

Com a assistência do Idesam, os agricultores aprenderam técnicas como a adubação foliar com biofertilizantes (a partir do esterco bovino), armadilhas caseiras contra a broca do café, podas, utilização de plantas que auxiliam na fixação do nitrogênio e sementes propícias. No caso da Amazônia, a opção foi o conilon, o único que sobrevive às altas temperaturas da região. Rústicas, as árvores geram um café encorpado e com mais cafeína.

O sombreamento propiciado pela regeneração natural e o plantio de espécies nativas também ajudou na produtividade dos cafezais. Em cinco anos, passou de 9 sacas por hectare para 24 sacas, diz a entidade.
Criado na década de 1980 após o Incra atrair agricultores do Paraná, Santa Catarina, Espírito Santo e outros Estados para integrar a região ao resto do país, o assentamento de Apuí foi posicionado numa área de 690 mil hectares – ainda o maior do Brasil. O local era um antigo entreposto para operários da construção da rodovia Transamazônica. Inicialmente, a proposta era levar 7,5 mil famílias para plantar café. Não chegaram a ser cadastrados 5 mil. Ao longo dos anos, muitos desistiram e venderam seus lotes, outros tantos chegaram informalmente, embaralhando os dados oficiais. Dos assentados originais, restam estimados 1,5 mil. Desses, só 200 a 300 são cafeicultores. O resto optou pelo boi.

“Era difícil produzir, processar e armazenar sem que estragasse”, diz Cenamo. O isolamento de Apuí não dava opções para quem vender. A pecuária, por outro lado, exigia pouca mão de obra e técnica e ainda tinha um cliente fiel – os moradores de Manaus, que importam 70% da carne que consomem.

Com os resultados já obtidos, ele espera convencer os demais a aderir ao projeto e fazer o caminho contrário, de reverter pasto em árvore. Segundo o Idesam, o projeto resgata uma atividade mais rentável e inclusiva, e ambientalmente muito melhor. Embora pequena, a produção de café de Apuí já chegou a pontos de venda de São Paulo e Rio.

 

Fonte – Valor Econômico

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